Powering Progress: Overcoming Key Challenges in South Africa’s Renewable Energy Revolution.

As with anything in life, there are rules, but in the case of renewable energy regulation in South Africa, they are constantly being changed and developed. The renewable energy sector in South Africa is quite young compared to its counterparts in Europe.

Thus there are a few snags on the road to green energy for most South African Companies.

In this article, we discuss the common challenges you might face and give you solutions on how you might overcome them.

However, before we get started, it might be good to mention some of the regulations currently in place for SA renewable energy

Current Policies

As with anything in life, there are rules, but in the case of renewable energy regulation in South Africa, they are constantly being changed and developed. The renewable energy sector in South Africa is quite young compared to its counterparts in Europe.

Here is a list of current regulations for South Africa’s renewable energy sector

  • Electricity Regulation Act, 2006: Regulates generation, transmission, and distribution, establishing NERSA for licensing and tariff setting.
  • National Energy Act, 2008: Provides a framework for energy planning and mandates the Integrated Energy Plan (IEP).
  • Carbon Tax Act, 2019: Imposes a tax on carbon emissions to encourage cleaner energy adoption.
  • Electricity Regulations on New Generation Capacity, 2011: Sets procedures for procuring new generation capacity.
  • Section 34 Determinations: Allows the Minister of Energy to determine new generation needs, forming the basis for future REIPPPP rounds.
  • Integrated Energy Plan (IEP): Guides the development of the energy sector, aligning supply with economic goals.
  • Green Energy Strategy and Policy Framework: Promotes renewable energy development with targets and incentives.
  • Municipal Energy Regulations: Affect local generation and distribution, including small-scale embedded generation (SSEG) and net metering policies.

The 6 Current Challenges faced by The Renewable Energy sector in SA

1. Regulatory Uncertainty

  • Frequent Policy Changes: South Africa has experienced several shifts in energy policies, creating uncertainty for investors and developers in the renewable energy sector.
  • Lack of Long-term Planning: The absence of a stable, long-term energy policy framework can deter long-term investments in renewable energy projects.

Strategy on how to overcome this

We suggest working with a seasoned team of experts such as Effectual Energy Consultants (See what we did there) to help you understand the policies and help predict trends and changes. Together you can plan a strategy that protects your business for the future. The technology used in your system should also be able to change and adapt to the evolving policies without extra capital outlays to ensure the long-term feasibility of your project.

2. Licensing and Permitting Delays

Think of the process like Home Affairs for solar panels,

  • Complex Approval Processes: The process for obtaining licenses and permits for renewable energy projects can be cumbersome and lengthy, often involving multiple government agencies.
  • Grid Connection Issues: Securing approvals for grid connection can be particularly challenging, delaying project implementation.

Strategy on how to overcome this

Currently this monthly an issue with a larger system, more than 1MW, however, this can be an issue. Most municipalities do not yet have proper processes and procedures in place for registering your system. The best way to overcome this issue is to make sure the technology and design being implemented are by national regulations as well as international regulations and best practices. For example, a cheap inverter might not have the necessary certification and might not get a new certification to be registered.

3. Financial and Market Barriers

  • Access to Finance: High initial capital costs for renewable energy projects require substantial financing, which can be difficult to secure without favourable policies and financial incentives.
  • Market Structure: The dominance of state-owned utility Eskom and the lack of a competitive energy market can limit the opportunities for independent power producers (IPPs).

Strategy on how to overcome this

Finding funding is never easy and I doubt the old ‘check the couch cushions’ trick is going to cut it. We would however like to direct you to a piece of wonderful writing that we published – “Empowering Green Growth: A Guide to Financing Renewable Energy in South Africa”. In this article, we lay out all your funding options.

4. Grid Infrastructure and Capacity

  • Ageing Infrastructure: South Africa’s existing grid infrastructure is ageing and may not be capable of handling the variable nature of renewable energy sources without significant upgrades.
  • Capacity Constraints: There is often insufficient capacity to integrate new renewable energy projects into the grid, leading to bottlenecks.

Strategy on how to overcome this

The best solution to this challenge would be to invest in on-site renewable energy generation and storage solutions, such as solar panels combined with battery systems, to reduce reliance on the national grid.

5. Policy Support and Incentives

  • Inadequate Incentives: While there are some incentives for renewable energy, they may not be sufficient to compete with established fossil fuel subsidies.
  • Renewable Energy Auctions: The Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Program (REIPPPP) has been successful but requires consistent and transparent execution to build investor confidence.

Strategy on how to overcome this

Okay, maybe we can blame SARS for this one.  We would however like to direct you to a piece of wonderful writing that we published about the current tax  benefits of renewable energy – “Harnessing Benefits: Tax Incentives and Benefits of Renewable Energy in South Africa”

6. Socio-economic and Political Factors

  • Employment Concerns: The transition to renewable energy can impact jobs in traditional energy sectors, leading to resistance from unions and communities dependent on coal mining and other fossil fuels.
  • Political Will: Strong political will and leadership are essential to drive the renewable energy agenda, which can be influenced by various interest groups and political dynamics.

Strategy on how to overcome this

Although understandable, considering the current unemployment stats have risen to 32.9%, unions can become unhappy when more renewable energy systems are implemented.  Implement retraining programs for workers transitioning from traditional energy sectors to renewable energy jobs. This can include technical training, certification programs, and partnerships with educational institutions by doing this, you create new job opportunities. If we also look at global trends, the “green collar worker” is a fast-growing sector, and it is believed that this industry can and has produced more jobs than traditional fossil fuels, especially due to the distributed nature of the technology.


South Africa’s renewable energy sector faces several challenges, from regulatory uncertainty and permitting delays to financial barriers and ageing infrastructure. Despite these hurdles, the potential for a successful green energy transition remains high. By adopting strategic approaches, such as collaborating with knowledgeable consultants, ensuring compliance with regulations, securing financing through diverse options, investing in on-site generation and storage, advocating for better incentives, and supporting retraining programs for workers, South African companies can navigate the complexities and drive the renewable energy revolution forward. With continued innovation, robust policies, and strong political will, South Africa can harness its abundant renewable resources to power progress and achieve a sustainable future

Recommended Posts